MANDUKYA UPANISAD WITH KARIKA. By Swami Paramarthananda. Transcribed by Sri S. Chandrasekaran, USA. Published by: Arsha Avinash Foundation. Mandukya Upanishad & Karika with Shankara Bhashya – Swami Nikhilananda. This is the English translation of the Mandukya Karika by Gaudapada, which is a commentary on the Mandukya Upanishad. The school of.
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Gaudapada – Wikipedia
Gaudapada’s Kwrika is commentary mandukyya to those 12 verses. AUM, the word, is all this, the whole universe. A clear explanation of it is as follows: All that is past, present and future is, indeed, AUM.
And whatever else there is, beyond the threefold division of time—that also is truly AUM. All this is, indeed, Msndukya. This Atman is Brahman. This same Atman has four quarters. The first quarter is called Vaisvanara, whose larika of activity is the waking state, who is conscious of external objects, who has seven limbs and nineteen mouths and who is the experiencer of gross objects.
The second quarter is Taijasa, whose sphere of activity is the dream state, who is conscious of internal objects, who is mandumya with seven limbs and nineteen mouths and who is the experiencer of subtle objects. That is the state of deep sleep wherein one asleep neither desires any object nor sees any dream. The third quarter is Prajna, whose sphere is deep sleep, in whom all experiences become unified, who is, verily, a mass of consciousness, who is full of mandukyx and experiences bliss and who is the door leading to the knowledge of dreaming and waking.
He is the Lord of all. He is the knower of all. He is the inner controller. He is the source of all; for from him all beings originate and in him they finally disappear. Gaudapada’s Karika 1 Visva is all—pervading, the experiencer of external objects.
Taijasa is the cognizer of internal objects. Prajna is a mass of consciousness. It is one alone that is thus known in the three states. Therefore the one Atman is perceived threefold in the same body. Know these to be the threefold experience. The gross object satisfies Manduka the subtle, Taijasa; and the blissful, Prajna.
Know these to be the threefold satisfaction. He who knows these both does not become attached to objects though enjoying them. Prana manifests all inanimate objects. The Purusha manifests the conscious beings in their manifold forms. But it is the very nature of the effulgent Being.
What desire is possible for Him who is the fulfillment of all desires? Turiya is not that which is conscious of the inner subjective world, nor that which is conscious of the outer objective world, nor that which is conscious of both, nor that which is a mass of consciousness.
It is not simple consciousness nor is It unconsciousness. It is unperceived, unrelated, incomprehensible, uninferable, unthinkable and indescribable. The essence of the Consciousness manifesting as the self in the three states, It is the cessation of all phenomena; It is all peace, all bliss and non—dual.
This is what is known as the Fourth Turiya. This is Atman and this has to be realized.
All other entities being unreal, the non—dual Turiya alone is known as effulgent and all—pervading. Prajna is conditioned by cause alone.
Neither cause nor manukya exists in Turiya. But Turiya is ever existent and all—seeing. But Prajna is associated with sleep in the form of cause and this sleep does not exist in Turiya.
Knowers of Brahman see neither sleep nor karima in Turiya. When the erroneous knowledge in these two is destroyed, Turiya is realized. The universe of duality which is cognized is mere illusion maya ; Non—duality alone is the Supreme Reality. These ideas are for the purpose of instruction. Duality ceases to exist when Reality is known. The same Atman explained before as being endowed with four quarters is now described from the standpoint of the syllable AUM.
AUM, too, divided into parts, is viewed from the standpoint of letters. The quarters of Atman are the same as the letters of AUM and the letters are the same kkarika the quarters. The letters are A, U and M.
Mandukya Upanishad & Karika with Shankara Bhashya – Swami Nikhilananda
Vaisvanara Atman, whose sphere of activity is the waking state, is A, the first letter of AUM, on account of his all— pervasiveness or on account of his being the first. He who knows this obtains all desires and becomes first among the great. Taijasa Atman, whose sphere of activity is the dream state, is U, the second letter of AUM, on account of his superiority or intermediateness.
He who knows this attains a superior knowledge, receives equal treatment from all and finds in his family no one ignorant of Brahman. Prajna Atman, whose sphere is deep sleep, is M, the third letter of AUM, because both are the measure and also because in them all become one. He who knows this is kzrika to measure all and also comprehends all within himself.
The Mandukya Upanishad (Gaudapa Karika and Shankara Bhashya)
Another reason for this identity is the all—pervasiveness of each. Another plain reason for such identity is their being in the middle. The other reason for such identity is another common feature, namely, that both represent the state of mergence. Meditation on the “soundless” brings no attainment. The Fourth Turiya is without parts and without relationship; It is the cessation of phenomena; It is all good and non—dual. This AUM is verily Atman. He who knows this merges his self in Atman—yea, he who knows this.
There is no doubt that the quarters are the same as the letters. Having understood AUM quarter by quarter, one should not think of anything else. AUM is the fearless Brahman. He who is always absorbed in AUM knows no fear whatever. It is also stated to be the Higher Brahman. AUM is beginningless and unique.
GAUDAPADA | mandukya karika
There is nothing outside it. It is unrelated to any effect and is immutable. The calm soul, contemplating AUM as all—pervading, does not grieve. The wise declare the unreality of all entities seen in dreams, because they are located within the body and the space therein is confined.
Nor does nandukya, when awakened, find himself in the places seen in the dream.
Therefore the wise say that the unreality established by reason is proclaimed by scripture. For the same reason i. The same condition i. The only difference is the limitation of space associated with dream objects. The objects that we see are really like illusions; still they are regarded as real. Thus both experiences, having a beginning and an end, are unreal. The dreamer, associating himself with the dream conditions, perceives those objects, even as a man, well instructed here, goes from one place to another and sees the peculiar objects belonging to those places.
Similarly, in the waking state, what is imagined within by the mind is illusory and what is cognized outside by the mind, real; but both should be held, on rational grounds, to be unreal.
It alone is the cognizer of objects. This is the decision of Vedanta. Again, He turns His mind within and imagines various ideas. There is no ground for differentiating the one from the other. Their difference lies only in the difference of the organs by means of which they are perceived.
As is one’s knowledge so is one’s memory. Even so is the true nature of Atman determined. All this is due to maya, belonging to the effulgent Atman, by which It appears, Itself, to be deluded. Those that are familiar with the Personal Deity call It the Personal Deity and those that are familiar with the void, the void. Those versed in the art of disputation call It the object of dispute; and those knowing the worlds call It the worlds. The knowers of the chitta call It the chitta; and the knowers of righteousness and unrighteousness call It righteousness and unrighteousness.
The grammarians call It the masculine, feminine and neuter genders; and still others, the Higher Brahman and the Lower Brahman. In truth, all such ideas are always imagined in Atman.
Atman assumes the form of what is taught and thus protects the disciple. Absorbed in that idea, he realizes it as Atman. He who truly knows this interprets, without any fear, the meaning of the Vedas. There is none seeking Liberation and none liberated.
This is the absolute truth.