EXPERIMENTACIÓN CON LA LOMBRIZ ROJA CALIFORNIANA (EISENIA FOETIDA) EN LOS CULTIVOS DE HOLLEJOS DE PAPA, CASCARA. La Lombricultura consiste en el cultivo intensivo de la lombriz roja Además la Lombriz roja californiana tiene un 70% en Proteína lo que. REPRODUCCN DE LA LOMBRIZ ROJA (EISENIA FOETIDA) EN SUSTRATO DE RESTOS DE CAFÉ. López César Noé (@), Rieke.
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Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research 70 3: ABSTRACT The efficiency of composting processes with and without the addition rlja Californian red worms Eisenia foetida was evaluated, using manure of dairy cows to generate organic fertilizer.
A linear model was used in the statistical analysis, with four replicates that included as fixed effects, the composting systems and time. K and Na concentrations were higher in the compost than in the vermicompost. The mean of pH presented differences in the two systems of decomposition.
The germination index, using lettuce seeds Lactuca sativa L. Grandes Lagos in vitro, of the decomposition products increased in week 25, indicating the degree of maturity reached. Mexico lacks legislation on managing the use of manure that recognize it as a valuable sub-product, considering that it contains a large proportion of the nutrients ingested by animals and constitutes a source of organic matter and potential nutrients required by crops.
This availability increases when the organic matter and the nutrients are transformed through chemical-biological processes like composting Kowalchuk et al. Traditionally, this manure has been incorporated into agricultural soils to increase the organic matter content and as a source of N for crops.
However, this application lomhriz generally not done appropriately, taking into account the soil characteristics and nutritional requirements of crops, califkrniana can result in damage to the health of the ecosystem, such as the salinization of soils, the lixiviation of nitrates to aquifers and the runoff of nitrates and phosphates to surface water bodies. This problem indicates that manure is an important reservoir of contaminants that can potentially affect humans, or from another perspective, a novel potential industry with important applications.
An alternative to reduce the environmental impact of manure is its treatment calliforniana composting. The latter system has had an important increase in agricultural zones in central and southern Mexico, where vermicompost is also considered a natural pesticide and is used with diverse agricultural crops.
However, in comparison to lonbriz composting, vermicomposting requires a higher initial investment of capital and a higher technical capacity to ensure lombbriz viability of the annelids. However, several specific aspects of the process, such as the nutrient balance and its potential activity as a suppressor of microorganisms that are pathogenic to humans, have not been explored following an adequate scientific model.
The objective of this work was to evaluate the changes in physiochemical and nutritional characteristics of compost and vermicompost during the process of maturation and after 29 ws of storage. The maturation process lasted 25 wk dbeginning December until June A mixture was prepared using two types of organic residues, manure from a herd of dairy cows californianaa pine sawdust. The mixture was submitted to two systems of decomposition californianna to as composting and vermicomposting.
The containers with the californiqna were protected from the environment with a plastic tunnel constructed with metal rods and semi-transparent plastic, with a maximum height of 40 cm. The structure was intended to protect the containers from rain and lombris humidity loss during the 25 wk of maturation of the substrates.
Cliforniana, the products were stored for 29 wk d in polyethylene bags at ambient temperature. The herd was composed of 2-toyr-old Holsteins confined in an areas of 50 x 40 m and fed on a base of rolled corn Zea mays L. Four containers were used for the composting system and four for vermicomposting.
The mixture was removed each week from the containers for composting to increase aeration and reduce the formation of anaerobic zones. In the case of vermicomposting, once the mixtures were made, they were submitted to a process of pre-composting for 15 d. Californian red worms were then seeded with a population of adult worms per experimental unit, that is, 10 worms L Physiochemical analysis The temperature of the mixture was monitored for the 25 wk of maturation by inserting a thermometer to a depth of 20 cm at the center of each container every 48 h at The day before sampling, californisna compost was manually homogenized within each container.
Lombriz roja californiana compostando (Eisenia fetida) – Image
Phytotoxicity assay The degree of phytotoxicity of the composting products was assessed with the calculation of a germination index previously used by Zucconi et al. Lettuce seeds Lactuca sativa L. Grandes Lagos were used for this assay with the following protocol: The mixture was agitated horizontally for 1 h and centrifuged at rpm for 15 min.
Some 5 mL of each extract was transferred to sterile Roha boxes, in which 20 seeds were rkja, as well as filter paper to maintain a moist environment. Distilled water was used as a negative control for inhibiting germination and a solution of Zn 0. There were a total of four experimental units for each of the four replicate of each treatment. Statistical analysis A linear model was adjusted to analyze the data. The model included as fixed effects, the effects of composting and vermicomposting systems; the effect of time over the weeks of observation; and the interaction among them.
A linear model was adjusted for the germination index, which included the composting method as a fixed effect. For the variable of storage period, a linear model was adjusted that included storage time as a fixed effect. The means comparison was made using orthogonal contrasts. The temperature of the substrates had a similar behavior to that of ambient temperature, always maintaining intermediate values between maximum and minimum temperatures.
Variation of maximum and minimum temperatures and of the lmbriz with compost and vermicompost during the composting period, December to June Temperature values are the mean of eight observations.
Temperature is one of the most important factors governing the velocity of biochemical reactions in composting Defrieri et al. This suggests a possible reduction in microbial activity and the absence of the microorganisms expected in this phase, in comparison to other experiments.
The substrate under the vermicomposting decomposition system in this study presented mean temperatures within the growth range established for worms for the major part of the process, and there were optimal temperatures beginning in week 13 of the study. The final mean of pH by composting presented a value of 8.
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The pH value of the compost in the present work was higher than what is traditionally reported as normal, with roka pH value of 7. As well, the compost presented higher levels of the alkaline cations K, Mg and Na, which can also have influenced its behavior.
In vermicomposting, the pH of the medium plays a very important role in directly influencing worm alimentation and reproduction, preferring pH values close to 7.
Comparison of pH and macro and micronutrients between mature vermicompost oombriz compost week 25 and stored week The values correspond to the mean of six observations. This could be because of the difficulty of homogenizing the initial mixture owing the physical characteristics of the fresh manure and sawdust Table 1. This variation was reduced in the following sampling 4 wk after, when the concentrations of organic C tended to equalize There was a decrease in the concentration of organic C in week 25, with a concentration of The results obtained in this research, in which organic C content behaved cyclically, have been reported before and in different systems Madrid and Castellans, There was a general tendency for this nutrient to increase in the substrate since the beginning of decomposition, which indicates that N fixing xaliforniana volatilization were not present.
Equally, the low temperatures, the califofniana in pH and the moisture of the residues favored the increase in total N content, which corresponds to the conditions observed in the vermicomposting system. This could be because of the difficulty in homogenizing the initial mixture. This variation decreased four weeks after, when the ratio tended to equalize and decrease to N-NO 3 concentrations in the substrates of the vermicompost and compost were very close to those found by Hao et al.
Toward the end of the experimental period, a P concentration of 0. The Ccaliforniana content of the final product of the vermicompost was lower than what was found by other authors. However, the results of this work do not demonstrate that vermicomposting promotes an increase in P concentration Table 1.
The final product of vermicompost presented a K concentration of 0. The K content found in the final products of vermicomposting and composting in this study coincided with those reported by other authors Castillo et al. Toward the end of the experimental period, Ca content was observed with a mean of 0. The final product of vermicomposting obtained a mean of Mg content of 0. Fricke and Vogtmann reported an average Mg content in californixna of 0. At the end of the experimental period a caliiforniana of 0.
Both cases presented lower concentrations than those reported for compost and vermicompost by some authors Ducasal,a condition that can be considered desirable given that Na is reported as a cation that can increase the salinity of the soil and can affect the growth and development of plants sensitive to this element Castellanos et al. Fricke and Vogtmann reported a maximum Zn content in compost of mg kg -1to avoid problems of toxicity by this heavy metal Table 1. It is evident that the initial content of the nutrients depends on the materials used for the composting.
For example, P is not lost because of volatilization or lixiviation, because of which its relative concentration should increase during the process. Roia this experiment, P concentration increased relatively, in both systems beginning in week 10, which could be the result of the decreased quantity of dry matter while the net quantity of this element lomgriz remain the same as the initial quantity.
The Ca, K kombriz Na ions were concentrated due to the reduction of organic matter in the compost, while their concentration decreased in the vermicompost. Because there is no information about the nutritional requirements of the worm, it is difficult to assume cailforniana this decrease is due to feeding by the worms.
Rather, it could be attributable to washing califorjiana these soluble salts with irrigation water, which could have caused a slight drainage through the substrate owing to the high moisture requirements of vermicomposting. On the other hand, the initial concentration of the micronutrient is highly variable, depending on the material used. Given that mineralization leads to a reduction roka the organic matter content, the micronutrient content of the compost should generally increase during the claiforniana.
In general, this behavior was observed for the four evaluated micronutrients with both decomposition processes beginning at week 10, which clearly coincides with the decrease in carbonated components lombris the system.
Phytotoxicity analysis Many substances found in immature composting products can reduce the germination rate of seeds depending on their concentration in the substrate used.
This effect can be directly related to the decrease in the concentration of organic acids in the material. Because the information form this test can indicate the maturity of the compost, the phytotoxicity study was conducted in two parts during weeks 21 and It also included the original mixture and a concentrated solution of Zn as a positive control of inhibition. Germination index of lettuce in vitro with extracts of vermicompost and compost at 21 and 25 weeks of decomposition.
In accordance with these results, the vermicompost product from 25 wk provides a more adequate mean for the germination of lettuce seeds; indicating a decrease in the unfavorable effects on the seeds by the action of certain phytotoxic substances. This unfavorable effect indicates that these materials can contain a diversity of organic compounds that could be toxic to the plants. These results should be taken into callforniana by agricultural producers who incorporate these or other fresh livestock residues as soil improvers without prior treatment.
Storage process The most important factor that affects the californkana use of compost in agricultural practices is the degree of maturity californiaana stability. Maturity refers to the degree of decomposition of organic substances and stability is related to the levels of microbial activity of the biomass Fuente et al. The storage period increased the N content of the recently prepared fertilizers.
According to these results, the storage period can increase N-NO 3 content, which is important because both N-NO 3 and N-NH 4 are absorbed by plants and constitute important forms of applying N fertilizer to crops Castellanos et al. Consequently, this increase can be considered positive.
Nevertheless, N-NO 3 can represent contamination of water and soils given that it can be lost by lixiviation. Given this, some califforniana of the soil should be taken into consideration, such loombriz texture, organic matter content and the infiltration velocity, when determining the length of the storage period.
P content decreased in both systems of composting during the storage period, which is contrary to what is expected given that P is not lost through volatilization or lixiviation.