analyses of essential oils of Lippia origanoides H.B.K grown in Colombia. Liliana Betancur-Galvis1, Bibiana Zapata1, Armando Baena2, Juan Bueno3. Lippia origanoides Kunth. Verbenaceae, is of great importance in the Brazilian traditional medicine. Because of it, this work had the purpose to contribute to the . Methods and Results. The composition, antimicrobial activity, mutagenic and toxic potential of L. origanoides were determined. Then, the effect.
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Verbenaceae, is of great importance in the Brazilian traditional medicine. Because of it, this work had the purpose to contribute to the ethnopharmacological knowledge of L.
Among plants cited in the survey, L. The agreed main uses were to treat menstrual cramps, stomachache, and baby and postpartum colic. This could indicate a consensus of the informants to possible antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of L. Therefore, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of L. A dose-dependent reduction in acetic acid-induced writhing was observed after treating mice with L. The same extract also inhibited significantly formalin-induced lipia response and proved to have a central antinociceptive effect, in the hot plate test.
This orihanoides demonstrates that L. Furthermore, it was also observed antispasmodic, analgesic and antimicrobial uses of other species of the genus Lippia Goniostachyum sectionrich in thymol and carvacrol. Lippia origanoides ; Maroons; Ethno-directed ; Ethnopharmacology ; Analgesic activity ; Women’s health. Lippia origanoides Kunth, Verbenaceae, is a very aromatic shrub distributed from southern North America to northern South America, with prominent occurrence in the Amazonian region of Brazil, the Guianas, Venezuela and Colombia Maisch, ; Pascual et al.
In Central America and Colombia, L. The species is also used for cooking, as seasoning, and to whet the appetite Morton, ; Stashenko ljppia al. The results showed that the leaves or aerial parts of L. These communities are ethnic groups with a defined historical background, specific territorial relations and presumptive black ancestry related to historical resistance to oppression. As a result of this survey, L. Literature on chemistry and pharmacology of this species are still scarce.
There are some studies on the chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from its leaves, being carvacrol and thymol the main constituents Oliveira et al.
However, there is limited knowledge about their non-volatile chemical constituents. At the moment, the flavonoid pinocembrin Stashenko et al. From an ethnopharmacological perspective, there is only one study that tests the antimicrobial properties of the species that could be related to some of its traditional uses Oliveira et al.
In this sense, this work aims to contribute to the ethnopharmacological knowledge of L. In addition, some assays were performed in order to verify the antinociceptive activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of L. In this work, five communities representing two quilombola areas were chosen: They led to the local specialists, quilombolas highly experienced in the use of medicinal plants, such as extractivists, woodsmen, healers, faith healers, praying ladies, midwives, and puxadores or puxadoraswho are traditional chiropractors.
And these local experts, in turn led to other ones by snowball sampling. Each field trip consisted of a residence period of 30 to 60 days in the studied communities.
The ethnobotanical data was collected through semi-structured interviews, participant observation and guided tours, also called walk-in-the-woods Albuquerque and Lucena The formularies applied contain socio-economic data sex, age, profession, schooling, monthly family income, number of residents and the medicinal plants information common name, therapeutic uses, doses, preparation methods, contraindications and sites of collection. A total of 35 quilombolas from the five communities studied, twenty women and fifteen men, were interviewed.
Quantitative data analysis techniques, such as the relative importance IR and corrected major use agreement MUAcwere also applied. It is determined as the ratio between the number of informants who independently cited the species L. The correction factor is the ratio between the number of informants citing L.
This index establishes the importance of a certain plant based on its versatility; that is, a plant is as important as the number of distinct potential uses. The maximum value possible for each species is 2 Bennet and Prance, The calculation is done according to the formula: To explore this index, it is necessary to categorize the body systems and properties, for this purpose; we employed the International Classification of Diseases ICD WHO, Therefore, the employments of medicinal plants use properties are distributed into the 17 listed categories of the ICD body systems.
Samples were identified by Dr. The control group was administered vehicle solution. All experiments were performed using male Swiss mice g obtained from our own animal facilities. Twelve hours before each experiment animals received only water, in order to avoid food interference with substance absorption. Mice were treated as previously described by Matheus et al.
Mice were orally pre-treated with extract or vehicle 60 minutes before administration of AA. The time in seconds that the animal spent licking the formalin-injected paw was recorded from 0 to 5 min first phase or neurogenic phase and 15 to 30 min second phase or inflammatory phase immediately after formalin injection.
The result was expressed as the time the animal spent licking the formalin-injected paw. Mice were tested according to the method described by Sahley and Berntson and adapted by Matheus et al. At successive intervals of 30 min after oral administration of L.
Baseline was considered as the mean reaction time obtained at 60 and 30 min before administration of the L. When animals were kept on the hot plate for a period of time greater than three times the baseline cut-offthey were removed to avoid lippia damage to the paws.
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All experimental groups were composed by mice. Statistical significance between groups was performed by analyses of variance ANOVA followed by Bonferroni’s test; p oroganoides less than 0.
The species was cited by This fact demonstrates that the knowledge and use of this medicinal plant is especially directed for the women’s health, notably related to the genitourinary system disorders or to childbirth and puerperium. Most of the interviewed women have guided or assisted in deliveries in their own communities and are experienced in the use of Origxnoides. It is also noteworthy that L. Lppia versatility of L.
However, the main uses of L. In this survey 38 uses of L. Therefore, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of this plant could be related with these therapeutical uses. Another possibility is that these applications could be related with uterine cervical dysplasia or uterine cervical neoplasms. The flavonoid pinocembrin identified in L. Moreover pinocembrin, llippia and carvacrol, which are present in large amounts in the leaves of L.
These compounds showed anticoagulant and antiplatelet activities Enomoto et al. Moreover, thymol and carvacrol have been extensively origannoides for their antimicrobial properties, which have already been documented in several studies Burt, The antimicrobial activities of the essential oil of L. These results support the use of this species in vaginal douche “banho de asseio” and to treat origanoidez discharge “corrimento”.
In order to investigate some of the pharmacological aspects of L. All doses tested displayed a similar or higher effect as ASA Fig. The algesic effects of acetic acid are due to the release of several mediators as histamine, serotonin, cytokines, and eicosanoids with an increase in peritoneal fluid levels of these Deraedt et al.
The antinociceptive activity of L.
The antinociceptive activity could also be explained by an increase on the pain threshold or by the interruption of the stimulus propagation in the pain sensing nerve priganoides. Animals were pre-treated by oral administration of different doses of L. In order to test if L. Injection of origanoies 2. The first phase occurs 5 min after injection and corresponds to acute neurogenic pain sensitive to drugs that interact with opioid system; and the second phase occurs between 15 and 30 min after formalin injection and corresponds to inflammatory pain inhibited by opioids and anti-inflammatory drugs.
Lippia Origanoides Essential Oil
Pre-treatment of animals inhibited in a similar and in a dose-dependent manner the second phase of formalin-induced nociception. Similarly to origanoives previous model, all doses tested significantly reduced the licking response. Vehicle-treated group was Substances that act primarily as central analgesics inhibit both phases while peripherally acting drugs inhibit only the phase 2 Rosland et al. These results indicate that L. These results also corroborate the inhibitory effect of L.
A significant increase on the baseline was observed 30 min after oral administration. As expected, administration of the vehicle did not induce any antinociceptive effect.
The pre-treatment with L. A significant effect was observed 30 min after administration. Our results indicate that L. Characteristic differences occurred iriganoides the time course and maximal effects of the antinociceptive action of L.
A rapid onset lippi an early maximum effect is characteristic of the time course of action of opioid agonists e. The administration of L.
One possible explanation for the rapid onset of action might be the solubility of the substances present in the extract, which allows them to rapidly reach the brain. The inhibitory effect observed with L. Animals were pre-treated with oral administration of different doses of L.
The section can now be distinguished into four groups, one of which is headed by L. Another group is headed by L.
Interestingly, they all have in common the thymol and carvacrol content and, in the same way of L. The analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of other Lippia species have already been described Table 1for their essential oils Mendes et al. These activities have been associated with the aromatic monoterpenes for the first study and with the presence of the flavonoid naringenin for the latter.