Formerly known as the World Commission on Environment and Development ( WCED), the The Brundtland Commission officially dissolved in December after releasing Our Common Future, also known as the Brundtland Report. Our Common Future, also known as the Brundtland Report in recognition of former Norwegian Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland’s role as Chair of the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), was published in by the United Nations through the Oxford University Press. Background: Brundtland, The Brundtland Report, “Our Common Future,” helped define sustainable development. In , UN.
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At the time, the UN General Assembly realized that there was a heavy deterioration of the human environment and natural resources. To rally countries to work and pursue sustainable development together, the UN decided to establish the Brundtland Commission.
Gro Harlem Brundtland was the former Prime Minister of Norway and was chosen due to her strong background in the sciences and public health. The document popularized and defined the term ” Sustainable Development “. Ten years after the United Nations Conference on the Human Environmenta number of global environmental challenges had clearly not been adequately addressed.
In several ways, these challenges had grown. Particularly, the underlying problem of how to reduce poverty in low-income countries through more productive and industrialized economy without, in the process, exacerbating the global and local environmental burdens, remained unresolved.
Neither high-income countries in the North nor low-income countries in the South were willing to give up an economic development based on growth, but environmental threats, ranging from pollution, acid rain, deforestation and desertification, the destruction of the ozone layer, to early signs of climate change, were impossible to overlook and increasingly unacceptable. There was a tangible need for a developmental concept that would allow reconciling economic development with environmental protection.
Views differed on several questions: Did environmental burdens result mainly from destructive economic growth-based development or from a lack of economic development and modernization? Would reconciling the economy and the environment require mainly technical means by using more resource-efficient technologies or mainly social and structural changes that would include political decision-making as well as changes in private consumption patterns?
The World Conservation Strategy of the International Union for the Conservation of Naturewas the first report that included a very brief chapter on a concept called “sustainable development”.
It focused on 11987 structural changes and was not widely read. The UN initiated an independent commission, which was asked to provide an analysis of existing problems and ideas for their solution, similar to earlier commissions such as the Independent Commission on International Development Issues Brandt Commission and the Independent Commission on Disarmament and Security Issues Palme Commission. The organization aimed to create a united international community with shared sustainability goals by identifying sustainability problems worldwide, raising awareness about them, and suggesting the implementation of solutions.
Also, it is credited with crafting the most prevalent definition of sustainability, as seen below. During kaporan s it had been revealed that the World Bank had started to experience an expanded role in intervening with the economic and social policies of the Third Lapogan.
This was most notable through the events at Bretton Woods in The ideas of neoliberalism and the institutions promoting economic globalization dominated the political agenda of the world’s then leading trading nations: These events led into an era of free markets built on a distortion of the international order forged in at Bretton 197. Bretton Woods was transformed through the s and s, finally ending in with the establishment of the World Trade Organization ushered in by United States President Bill Clinton.
Bretton Woods was formed as an arrangement among the industrialized nation states, but was transformed into a global regime of ostensibly free markets that privileged multinational corporations and actually undermined the sovereignty of the very national communities that established Bretton Woods. The Brundtland Report was intended as a response to the conflict between the nascent order bbrundtland globalized economic growth and the accelerating ecological degradation occurring on a global lapran.
The challenge posed in the s was to harmonize prosperity with ecology.
This postulated finding the means to continue economic growth without undue harm to the environment. To address the urgent needs of developing countries Third Worldthe United Nations saw a need to strike a better balance of human and environmental well-being.
This was to be achieved by redefining the concepts of “economic development” as the new idea of “sustainable development” – as it was called in the Brundtland Report. The Brundtland Commission draws upon several notions in its definition of sustainable developmentwhich is the most frequently cited definition of the concept to date. A key element in the definition is the unity of environment and development.
The Brundtland Commission argues against the assertions of the Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment and provides an alternative perspective on sustainable development, unique from that of the World Conservation Strategy of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. The Brundtland Commission pushed for the idea that while the “environment” was previously perceived as a sphere separate from human emotion or action, and while “development” was a term habitually used to describe political goals or economic progress, it is more comprehensive to understand the two terms in relation to each other We can better understand the environment in relation to development and we can better understand development in relation to the environment, because they cannot and should not be distinguished as separate entities.
The two are inseparable. The Brundtland Commission insists upon the environment being something beyond physicality, going beyond that traditional school of thought to include social and political atmospheres and circumstances. It also insists that development is not just about how poor countries can ameliorate their situation, but what the entire world, including developed countries, can do to ameliorate our common situation.
The term sustainable development was coined in the paper Our Common Futurereleased by the Brundtland Commission. Sustainable development is the kind of development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The two key concepts of sustainable development are: Most agree that the central idea of the Brundtland Commission’s definition of “sustainable development” is that of intergenerational equity.
In sum, the “needs” are basic and essential, economic growth will facilitate their fulfillment, and equity is encouraged by citizen participation.
Therefore, another characteristic that really sets this definition apart from others is the element of humanity that the Brundtland Commission integrates. The particular ambiguity and openness-to-interpretation of this definition has allowed for widespread support from diverse efforts, groups and organizations. However, this has also been a criticism; perceived by some notable commentators as “self-defeating and compromised rhetoric”.
As a result of the work of the Brundtland Commission, the issue of sustainable development is on the agenda of numerous international and national institutions, as well as corporations and city efforts.
Brundtland Commission – Wikipedia
The definition gave light to new perspectives on the sustainability of an ever-changing planet with an ever-changing population. The Brundtland Commission’s mandate was to: Laaporan Brundtland Commission Report recognised that human resource development in the form of poverty reduction, gender equity, and wealth redistribution was crucial to formulating strategies for environmental conservation, and it also recognised that environmental-limits to economic growth in industrialised and industrialising societies existed.
However, the Report was unable to identify the mode s of production that are responsible for degradation of the environment, and in the absence of analysing the principles governing market-led economic growth, the Report postulated that such growth could be reformed and expanded; this lack of analysis resulted in an obfuscated-introduction of the term sustainable development. The report deals with sustainable development and the change of politics needed for achieving it. The definition of this term in the report lapoean quite laporaan known and often cited:.
Politicians, civil servants, and environmental experts make up the majority of the members.
Laporan brundtland 1987 pdf
Members of the commission represent 21 different nations both developed and developing countries are included. Many of the members are important political figures in their home country. One example is William Ruckelshausformer head of the U. The commission focuses on setting up networks to promote environmental stewardship. Most of these networks make connections between governments and non-government entities.
In this brundtlqnd government and business leaders come together to share ideas on how to encourage sustainable development. The Brundtland Commission has been the most successful in forming international ties between governments and multinational corporations.
The and Earth Summits were the direct result of the Brundtland Commission. The international structure and scope of the Brundtland Commission allow multiple problems such as deforestation and ozone depletion to be looked at from brkndtland holistic approach.
The three main pillars of sustainable development include economic growth, environmental protection, and social equality. While many people brjndtland that each of these three ideas contribute to the overall idea of sustainability, it is difficult to find evidence of equal lapodan of initiatives for the three pillars in countries’ policies worldwide. With the overwhelming number of countries that put economic growth on the forefront of sustainable development, it is evident that the other two pillars have been suffering, especially with the overall brundtlnad being of the environment in a dangerously unhealthy state.
The Brundtland Commission has put forth a conceptual framework that many nations agree with and want to try to make a difference with in their countries, but it has been difficult to change these concepts about sustainability into concrete actions and programs.
Implementing sustainable development globally is still a challenge, but because of the Brundtland Commission’s efforts, progress has been made. After releasing their report, Our Common Future brundtlabd, the Brundtland Commission called for an international meeting to take place where more concrete initiatives and goals could be mapped lxporan. This meeting was held in Rio de JaneiroBrazil. Economic Growth is the pillar that most groups focus on when attempting to attain more sustainable efforts and development.
In trying to build their economies, many countries focus their efforts on resource extraction, which leads to unsustainable efforts for environmental protection as well as economic growth sustainability.
While the Commission was able to help to change the association between economic growth and resource extraction, the total worldwide consumption of resources is projected to increase in the future.
So much of the natural world has already been converted into human use that the focus cannot simply remain on economic growth and omit the ever-growing problem of environmental sustainability. For the second year in a row inthe United States and Europe added more power capacity from renewable sources such as wind and solar. In the efforts continue with 45 new wind energy projects beginning in 25 different states.
Eco-city development occurring around the world helps to develop and implement water conservation, smart grids with renewable energy sources, LED street lights and energy efficient building. The consumption gap remains, consisting of the fact that “roughly 80 percent of the natural resources used each year are consumed by about 20 percent of the world’s population”.
This level is striking and still needs to be addressed now and throughout the future. The Social Equality and Equity as pillars of sustainable development focus on the social well-being of people.
Our Common Future – Wikipedia
The growing gap between incomes of rich and poor is evident throughout the world with the incomes of the richer households increasing relative to the incomes of middle – or lower-class households. This is attributed partly to the land distribution patterns in rural areas where majority live from land.
The Brundtland Commission made a significant impact trying to link environment and development and thus, go away from the idea of environmental protection whereby some scholars saw environment as something of its sake. The Commission has thus reduced the number of people living on less than a dollar a day to just half of what it used to be, as many can approach the environment and use it.
These achievements can also be attributed to economic growth in China and India. Members of the Secretariat have included: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Archived from the original on Archived from the original on 2 May Retrieved 6 May Archived from the original on 23 June Retrieved 18 January Archived from the original on 18 Hrundtland Goals, Indicators, Values, and Practice”.
Archived from the original on 17 April Resources – Publications – Core Publications”. Archived from the original on 5 April Archived from the original on 8 April Archived from the original PDF on Archived PDF from the original on Gathering a body of global agreements”.
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