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The various phenological stages of the plant, the fodder and grains yields and several characters relating to the quality of seeds were measured. The results obtained show large diversity among phenological ecotypes of Vicia narbonensis L. The ecotype is very early for the beginning of flowering, for full flowering, for the beginning of pods formation and for complete maturity. In contrast, ecotype is the latest for all the phonological stages measured.

Concerning forage and grain production, the sstif analysis showed highly significant itgf between ecotypes. The best fodder and grain productions are reported for the late flowering ecotypes. Setit produced average values of 2. Ecotypes and produced the highest concentrations in fat 1. In semi-arid regions of Algeria, agriculture is dominated by field crops associated with the breeding of ruminants.

The low rainfall levels average mm year -1 and the low use of irrigation have resulted in an extensive conduct livestock. This is indeed carried out mainly on poor food resources. These resources consist mainly of by-products bran, straw and stubblegrazing on plants spontaneous fallow and rarely growing vetch, oats and barley CIHEAM, Recently, production systems have undergone profound changes.

Indeed, the speculative nature of the meat market Bahhady et al. Besides this phenomenon, recent developments of grasslands mentioned by Abbas and AbdelguerfiAbbas et al. The limited grasslands are familiar with this sharp deterioration due to a high animal stocking. The lack of fodder and pastoral agriculture leads to a disproportionate use of concentrated feed causing an imbalance in the supply of livestock Cocks et al.

Given this situation, the development of grasslands for forage crops is an important developmental field to support sustainable mixed grain and livestock systems. For this purpose, species of itgv legumes are well-known for their potential to produce more food on land left fallow Abd-El-Moneim et al.

Furthermore, by avoiding monoculture, these species facilitate the control of root diseases and nematodes in cereals Masson and Gintzburger, ; Bahhady et al.

Based on work done by ICARDA, the production of dry matter and protein obtained in the biennial rotation cereal-legume forage is important. Despite the diversity of legume species available in Algeria, very few have setid used specifically as a food source for livestock. Among the annual forage legumes grown on fallow Vicia narbonensis L.

The setid conducted in Turkey also shows that this species is very promising in rotation with wheat crop Durutan et al. The species Vicia narbonenis L. In Algeria, a irgc scientific information is available on this species of forage legumes and this article proposes setlf study its agronomic performance in the semi-arid region of Setif during two crop years.

Itbc area is under the dominance of a continental climate with high temperature ranges, both annual and daily. The average annual rainfall itgf about mm Seltzer, However, there occurs variations intra- and inter-annual that are very important. Periods of drought including spring were numerous over the last 20 years. Thus, there is a continuous variation of annual rainfall levels has been observed especially during the spring which is a key period for cereal and forage cultivation Bahlouli et al.

Thus, if there weather events occur in the first decade of May, they will be responsible for flower abortion. The soil of the experimental site belongs to the group of steppe soils Perrier and Soyer, The content of soil with organic matter varies from 0.

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The climatic conditions of the two campaigns are presented in Table 1. Accumulated rainfall total is clearly important in compared to The monthly temperature ranges are higher during the first growing season.

The experiment was carried on 15 ecotypes of the species Vicia narbonenis L. Setting up the experiment: A set of cultural practices have been made for the establishment of the experiment.

Immediately after the first rains of autumn September and Octoberdeep ploughing 25 centimeter was performed using a disc plough. Two passages cover crop crusaders aimed to reduce infestation by weeds and get a good bed for seeds.

During the two test campaigns and immediately before planting, chemical weed control was applied using the Terbutryn herbicide active ingredient at 1. Planting was done manually by a device completely blocks-randomized with 3 replicates per block in a plot with previous crop as grain durum wheat.

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Each elementary plot consisted of 4 rows of 4 m long, 30 cm apart. Two hundred seeds of each ecotype of Vicia narbonenis L.

Parameters measured and statistical processing: Half of the elementary plot was used to assess the potential forage production and a set of agronomic traits ; the other half was used to measure grain yield and to assess the quality of seeds produced. The stage of full flowering to early pod was taken to evaluate the forage yield.

The phenological stages were observed:. The measured yields are the total dry matter DM and grain yield GY.

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We have made hay on a 1 m 2 per plot in the elementary stage of full bloom and we immediately weighted the sample to determine the amount of the produced green material. The grain yield was determined for each ecotype and by basic plot of harvested 1 m 2 then proceeds to the fixed combine. The relationship between pairs of measured variables are described and analyzed by the calculation of phenotypic correlations based on the genotype averages.

Variability in phenological development and production: This highlights the wide phenotypic variability observed for all measured parameters. Also, great phenological diversity was observed among ecotypes of Vicia narbonenis L. In contrast, the ecotype is the latest with 79, 92, and days for the same phenological stages, respectively Table 3. This indicates that the characteristics of ecotypes of the species Vicia narbonenis L.

The best forage production and grain are obtained for the ecotypes with late flowering. For example, the ecotype in showed average values of 25 quintals ha -1 of dry fodder and Chemical composition of seeds: The ecotypes and produce seeds with higher levels of fat 1.

However, it is negatively correlated but not significantly with the number of grains per pod Table 6. The study of correlations between the date of flowering, fertility number of flowers per plantgrain yield and forage among ecotypes of Vicia narbonenis L. Both positive relationships suggest that ecotypes with a long flowering period will give the best yields and fodder grain. This relationship shows that the altitude area or the low temperatures are frequent, that late ecotypes in flowering reduce their fertility and therefore reduce grain yield.

Our results confirm those obtained in other studies indicating that the species Vicia narbonenis L. In particular, the work of Abd-El-Moneim et al. Also, Siddique et al.

This is why the possibility that this species could be used as a grain legume in semi-arid especially as food for livestock and, possibly, after selecting a greater appetite.

In our study and according to visual observations, we found that most ecotypes of Vicia narbonenis L. Similar observations were reported by Siddique et al. Therefore, we have shown that this species could be used as fodder as well as a legume seed. The great variability observed in phenological parameters evaluated for the 15 ecotypes of Vicia narbonensis L. These temperatures affect in most cases vetches fertility by inducing a reduction in the number of flowers per plant and consequently the decrease in grain yield Baldy, The study of Ridge and Itc on pea cultivation in the Mediterranean climate of Australia have shown that yield reduction is due to extreme negative temperatures at the flowering stage.

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Our results show a negative insignificant relationship between the period of flowering emergence and fertility Fig. Thus, the later this stage is, the higher its fertility number of grains per pod.

This is explained by a probable reduction in the number of flowers in late ecotypes in flowering. The works of Estelle indeed show that peas are resistant to frost the earliest at flowering stage of floral initiation and are therefore more fertile.

Besides these aspects, the significant positive relationships that we have highlighted setf characters including phenological stages of early flowering, full flowering, early pod maturity and complete maturity and forage yield, on the other hand, with grain yield Table 4 show that the late ecotypes of Vicia narbonenis L.

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In addition, these ecotypes are early enough to escape the summer drought stress. This increases grain yield coinciding with the decline in fertility can be explained by compensation of the low number of seeds by the elevation of the specific weight there after the very common late rain in the region of study May-June.

Present results are similar to those of Abd-El-Moneim and Siddique et al. The same results were found by Mebarkia and Abdelguerfion cultures of Vicia erviliaVicia sativa L. These findings provide prima board to the possibility of direct selection on grain yield for late ecotypes setuf produce a food rich in nitrogen and seed. Concerning the ecotypes in early flowering and maturity, they can be xetif as grazing resources.

In addition, the late ecotypes are most suitable for grazing because of their long flowering period and their good forage production. These low-wind directions can be supported by the results obtained by Angelo who argue that the species Vicia narbonenis L.

In terms of quality seeds, the results indicate a wide variability within ecotypes; the high total nitrogen content in narbon vetch grains could be a source of supplementary animal feed in the semi-arid and arid areas. Our results are similar to those obtained by Abd-El-MoneimMihailovic et al. Others studies have reported that Vicia narbonenis L. Compared with other species of vetch, Vicia narbonensis L.

The obtained results show that the species Vicia narbonensis L. Wealth in total nitrogen of the seed can also be used as a component of feed concentrate.

Some criteria are interesting for the selection of appropriate ecotypes in semi arid regions including the earliness to flowering and the number of grains per pod to overcome the decline in fertility among late ecotypes.

However, it has been established within the studied ecotypes that the best production of grain and dry matter is obtained by the late ecotypes in flowering and complete maturity because of the favourable rainfall conditions in late season.

This suggests a possible use of these ecotypes.