Image orthicon definition is – a camera tube that is similar to the iconoscope or the orthicon and uses secondary emission and electron multiplication to produce . Image orthicon definition, a camera tube, more sensitive than the orthicon, in which an electron image generated by a photocathode is focused on one side of a. Define image orthicon. image orthicon synonyms, image orthicon pronunciation, image orthicon translation, English dictionary definition of image orthicon. n.

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This was the first time that orhhicon could broadcast a live street scene from cameras installed on the roof of neighbor buildings. The result is expressed in inches and is usually though not always rounded to a convenient fraction – hence the approximation.

In effect, the electrons travel along the lines of force, although helically, in detail. The photo-electrons are focused on to the target by the combined action of the electrostatic field and a longitudinal magnetic field, the latter being produced by an external coil. Test your vocabulary with our question quiz!

Multiplier Section The return beam, comprising electrons which are not required for neutralising the charge on the target, travels back along approximately the same path as the outgoing electron beam and is directed into a five-stage electron multiplier where it is amplified to become the output video signal.

By using a Pyroelectric material such as Triglycene Sulphate TGS as the target, a vidicon sensitive over a broad portion of the infrared spectrum. New York Times article. Developed in ten years’ work by Dr. However, it tends to flare in bright light, causing a dark halo to be seen around the object; this anomaly is referred to as ” blooming ” in the broadcast industry when image orthicon tubes were in operation. Archived from the original on 15 July In a conventional magnetically deflected CRT, such as in a TV receiver or computer monitor, basically the vertical deflection coils are equivalent to coils wound around an horizontal axis.

On average, each image electron ejects several “splash” electrons thus adding amplification by secondary emissionand these excess electrons are soaked up by the positive mesh effectively removing electrons from the target and causing a positive charge on it in relation to the incident light in the photocathode.

Principles orhticon Operation Schematic arrangement of the 4. Weimer, and Harold B. The screen potential limits the excursion of the target and ensures complete stability at all light levels. The electrical charge produced by an image will remain in the face plate until it is scanned or until the charge dissipates.


While the iconoscope and the intermediate orthicon used capacitance between a multitude of small but discrete light sensitive collectors and an imagd signal plate for reading video information, the image orthicon employed direct charge readings from a continuous electronically charged collector.

Farnsworth applied for a patent for his Television System that included a device for “the conversion and dissecting orthico light”. An image orthicon camera can take television pictures by candlelight because imae the more ordered light-sensitive area and the presence of an electron multiplier at the base of the tube, which operated as a high-efficiency amplifier.

Retrieved March 25, These focus coils are essentially as long as the tubes themselves, and surround the deflection yoke coils. A field-sequential system developed by Peter Goldmark for CBS was demonstrated to the press on September 4,[] and was first shown to the general public on January 12, Three million tiny photo cells ‘memorize’, then pass out pictures.

The return beam, comprising electrons which are not required for neutralising the charge on the target, travels back along approximately the same path as the outgoing electron beam and is directed into a five-stage electron multiplier where it is amplified to become the output video signal.

And is one way more correct than the others? Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Block diagram of image orthicon and associated control units. This tube is essentially identical to the super-Emitron, but the target is constructed of a thin layer of isolating material placed on top of a conductive base, the mosaic of metallic granules is missing.

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Deflection fields bend the lines of force with negligible defocusingijage the electrons follow the lines of force. In Junethe scientific journal Nature published a letter in which Alan Archibald Campbell-Swintonfellow of the Royal Society UKdiscussed how a fully electronic television system could be realized by using imagge ray tubes or “Braun” tubes, after its inventor, Karl Braun as both imaging and display devices.

An image of the scene to be televised is focused by an optical lens system on to the photo-cathode and causes photo-electrons to be emitted. The edge field at the end of the beam focusing electrode is controlled by adjusting the potential of the decelerator grid No. The remaining electrons are then deflected back into the anode, [43] [47] captured by a special grid[83] [84] [85] or deflected back into an electron multiplier.


It has an efficient photocathode that transforms the scene light into an electron image; the latter is then accelerated towards a target specially prepared for the emission of secondary electrons.

Finally, an electron beam periodically sweeps across the target, effectively scanning the stored image and discharging each capacitor in turn such that the electrical output from each capacitor is proportional to the average intensity of the scene light between each discharge event as in the iconoscope. Inthe EMI engineers Blumlein and McGee filed for patents for television transmitting systems where a charge storage plate was shielded by a pair of special gridsa negative or slightly positive grid lay very close to the plate, and a positive one was placed further away.

Video camera tube

Those entities had a substantial investment in not only tube cameras, but also in the ancillary equipment needed to correctly process tube-derived video. Each individual electron from the electron image produces several secondary electrons after reaching the target, so that an amplification effect is produced, and the resulting positive charge is proportional to the integrated intensity of the scene light. The secondary emission at the target produces a pattern of positive charges corresponding point by point with the light distribution of the original scene and the thinness of the target allows this charge pattern to be reproduced immediately on its reverse side, i.

Inwhile employed by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Russian-born American engineer Vladimir Zworykin presented a project for a totally electronic television system to the company’s general manager.

However, there are serious problems as well, because the electron beam “spreads” and accelerates in a direction parallel to the target when it scans the image’s borders and corners, so that it produces secondary electrons and one gets an image that is well focused in the center but blurry in the borders.

Image orthicon – definition of image orthicon by The Free Dictionary

They had attempted to generate an electrical signal by projecting an image onto a selenium-coated metal plate that was simultaneously scanned by a cathode ray beam.

Saticons though, usually have slightly higher resolution. The irthicon is an image painted in positive charge, with the brightest portions having the largest positive charge.