Unit 1. Introduction to IBM System p Servers and AIX system administration Administration II class (Q/AU16) includes a discussion of diagnostics. In the following example, AU20 is the name of a non-DDN network, and AU16 is the name of a DDN network. * NPSI MCH DTE Window Packet Logical * LU. In the following example of the LINK statement, AU20 is the name of a non-DDN network, and AU16 is the name of a DDN network. * NPSI MCH DNIC DTE.
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Initial products were commercial scales, meat and cheese slicers, industrial time-recording equipment, tabulators, and punched cards.
Bythe company name had been changed to International Business Machines Corporation, and a line of business based on a printing calculator had begun to dominate its sales. This line of business developed into modern data processing. One of these techniques was seen to be speech synthesis for aj16 translators, reservation systems, office business systems, and aids for people with impaired vision.
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A synthesis approach based on assembling words from stored diphone segments was ibn because of the potential reduction in required computer storage over storing whole words, and the expectation that segment assembly would require less real-time processing than a synthesis by rule method. Use of a separate analog synthesizer avoided the computer processing necessary to construct the speech wave, as complete simulations at that time were taking times real time on a large computer, an IBM Also, the function generator and synthesizer offered immediate response, whereas complete ibbm simulation would have required overnight processing.
IBM’s use of online interactive processing with graphic displays took another decade to develop. Synthesis was initially seen merely as a method of insuring smooth juncture between stored segments, impossible to do with prerecorded human speech segments. Formant synthesis, rather than articulatory synthesis, was chosen because it was thought the control data could be obtained from a sound spectro- graph or an electronic formant-tracker.
The techniques and recordings of the project will be summarized in the following three sections: Formant synthesizer implemented with operational amplifiers and controlled by an on-line computer with graphic display. Goal of text-to-speech using diphone concatenation. Late in the year, additions to the function generator allowed the patterns to be sampled at millisecond intervals and punched into cards for entry into the IBM computer. The stored values could then be assembled by the computer in any specified order and the resulting values output to a digital tape.
Speech synthesis from manually pre- pared patterns of whole sentences, read by the function generator. The patterns were then taped to a transparent, endless mylar belt to be carried past a flying-spot scanner photos. This function generator design was believed to offer improvement au6 flexibility and ease-of-use over the previous designs for multi-channel function generators using conducting ink see SSSHP UK University College London.
A partial control pattern and sound sample.
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The synthesizer control patterns were stored digitally in the computer in short units, mainly as consonant- vowel and vowel-consonant pairs.
Truby coined the name “Diphone” for these segments. Research and Development, 8, Description of synthesizer, function generator, and diphone synthesis techniques. Amplitude modulation of the noise source to improve naturalness. K Truby, H. Munster,Basel: Description and naming of diphones.
Effect of vowel duration on perceived intensity and quality. Byit had become apparent that familiarization with the synthetic material limited the research staff’s ability to make further improvements in the synthesis.
To solve that problem, formal intelligibility tests were implemented, using naive listeners from a local university. Initial test material was a synthetic version of the Central Institute for the Deaf intelligibility test CID W22, using phonetically-balanced words. Analysis of the tests suggested which diphones needed to be improved, and which diphones were being confused.
This was one of the first uses of intelligibility tests to diagnose problems with speech synthesis. IBM Confidential, declassified Jan. Use of CID-W22 lists in intelli- gibility testing, effects of word and diphone familiarity, techniques of diphone synthesis, test procedures, results. Aylsworth, “Some effects of list familiarity and synthetic segment familiarity on the intelligibility of PB-words produced by diphone synthesis,” 70th meeting of the Au6.
By it had become apparent ubm diphones created in isolation were too stressed when used within words and phrases. For that reason work during the years and addressed the use of diphones in multi-allophonic roles. Diphones were synthesized initially in a meaningful word, but stylized for subsequent use in other allophonic roles by later modification of duration and intonation.
I,K Discussion of the theory of diphone construction for multiallophonic roles in continuous speech. Test procedures and results of intelligibility tests using 64 words from telephone-intercept applications. Dixon, containing examples of sentence synthesis from the function generator, diphone words, and diphone sentences diphone spelling.
Three-ring binder for 8. Dated Oct 30, to Jan xu16, Diphone-assembly rules for Lib 4. Contours on the older photocopies have been darkened by hand for better reproduction. The long patterns required up to five photocopies, in which the photocopies overlap. Note that the first two patterns have different F0 and F3 scales. Notes on original function generator patterns. Sufficient data has been included with this history to allow diphone synthesis to be reconstructed by simulation.
A graphics display replaced the previous multi-channel function generator. During this period, N. Dixon was able to improve the method of diphone segmentation and assembly, but text-to-speech capability was not reached. The speech synthesis project was terminated during because of insufficient commercial application to continue the funding. Detailed description of TASS-III system with circuit transfer functions s-plane equationscalibration values, and a description of the sound room used for testing.
If necessary within about the next years, the esti- mated life of the paper, the electronic diphone library 5B can be reconstructed by scanning the ah16 pages and using optical character recognition see included Reconstruction notes. Diphone-assembly logic starts on leaf 17 for 12 pages. A research project to revive the diphone synthesis work after ten years.
NMAH | Smithsonian Speech Synthesis History Project ()
The goal was a completely jbm text-to-speech system. Dixon, by then at the T. No record available of text-to-speech. Experimental speech synthesis system description, diphone assembly algorithms.
Watson Research Center report RC12 pp. User’s guide for develop- ment text-to-speech system. Synthesis using an improved diphone segment library and algorithms.
Words time compressed to either or ms. Installed at the New York Stock Exchange. A16 time slots of ms on a magnetic drum, words maximum, available to 48 telephone lines simultaneously. Human speech was manually edited to fit portions of words or phrases into the fixed ms time slots. Donated by IBM Corp. One synthesizer per telephone line.
Watson Research Center Assoc. Watson Research Center, speech synthesis Dir. Watson Research Center H.