Elikia M’Bokolo. Útá Wikipedia. Sauter à la navigation Sauter à la recherche. Elikia M’Bokolo o Elikia M’Bokolo (*23 dɛsɛ́mbɛ ) azalí mosapoli wa . Congolese Professor Emeritus Elikia M’bokolo is in the spotlight if not the hot seat . On the 14th of July the highly acclaimed intellectual and. The Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa is headquartered in Dakar Senegal. It was established in as an ().
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A hundred and fifty years after France abolished slavery. On 27 April Victor Schoelcher, the French under-secretary of state for the colonies, signed a decree abolishing slavery. To force the decision through, he had warned of the danger of a general uprising if nothing was done.
The course of human history is marked by appalling crimes. But even the hardened historian is filled with horror, loathing and indignation on examining the record of African slavery. How was it possible? How could it have gone on for so long, and on such a scale? A tragedy of such dimensions has no parallel in any other part of the world.
The African continent was bled of its human resources via all possible routes. At least ten centuries of slavery for the benefit of the Muslim countries from the ninth to the nineteenth. Then more than four centuries from the end of the fifteenth to the nineteenth of a regular slave trade to build the Americas and the prosperity of the Christian states of Europe.
The figures, even where hotly disputed, make your head spin. The Atlantic trade is the least poorly documented to date, but this is not the only reason. More significantly, it was directed at Africans only, whereas the Muslim countries enslaved both Blacks and Whites.
And it was the form of slavery that indisputably contributed most flikia the present situation of Africa. It permanently weakened the continent, led to its colonisation by the Europeans in the nineteenth century, and engendered the racism and contempt from which Africans still suffer.
While eljkia squabble about the details, the basic questions raised by the enslavement of the Africans have scarcely varied since the eighteenth century, when the issue first became the subject of public debate as the result of the efforts of abolitionists in the Northern slave states, the demands of black intellectuals, and the unremitting struggle of the slaves themselves.
Why the Africans rather than other peoples? Who exactly should be held responsible for the slave trade? The Europeans alone, or the Africans themselves? Did the slave trade e,ikia real damage to Africa, or was it a marginal phenomenon affecting only a few coastal societies? We need to take a fresh look at the origins of the Atlantic slave trade. They shed light on the enduring mechanisms that established and maintained the vicious spiral.
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It is not certain that the European slave trade originally derived from elikja Arab trade. For a long time the Arab slave trade appears to have been a supplement to a much more profitable commerce in Sudanese gold and the precious, rare or exotic products of the African countries. Whereas, despite some exports of gold, ivory and hardwoods, it was the trade in human beings that galvanised the energy of the Europeans along the coast of Africa.
Again, the Arab slave trade was geared mainly to the satisfaction of domestic needs. The enslavement of Africans for production was tried in Iraq but proved a disaster. The two slavery systems nevertheless shared the same justification of the unjustifiable: In both cases, we find the same fallacious interpretation of Genesis, according to which the Blacks of Africa, as the alleged descendants of Ham, are cursed and condemned to slavery.
At first, they simply raided the coast and carried people off. But the regular exploitation of mines and plantations required an ever larger workforce.
A proper system had to be established to ensure a steady supply. The great slaving companies were formed in the second half of the seventeenth century, when the Americas, and other parts of the world which the Treaty of Tordesillas and various papal edicts had reserved to the Spaniards and Portuguese, were redistributed among the nations of Europe.
The whole of Europe – France, England, Holland, Portugal and Spain, and even Denmark, Sweden and Brandenburg shared in the elikis, establishing a chain of monopoly companies, forts, trading posts and colonies that stretched from Senegal to Mozambique. Only distant Russia and the Balkan countries were missing from the pack – and they received their own small contingents of slaves mm the Ottoman Empire. In Africa itself, sporadic raids by Europeans soon gave way to regular commerce.
African societies were drawn into the slavery system under duress, hoping that, once inside it, they would be able to derive maximum benefit for themselves. Nzinga Mbemba, ruler of the Kongo N, is a good example. He had converted to Christianity in and referred to the king of Portugal as his brother. It was to no avail. The African monarch gradually allowed himself to be convinced that the slave trade was both useful and necessary.
Among the goods offered in exchange for human beings, rifles took pride of place.
And only states equipped with rifles, i. The African states fell into the trap set by the European slavers. Trade or go under. All the states along the coast or close to the slave trading areas were riven by the conflict between national interest, which demands that no resource necessary to security and prosperity be neglected, and the founding charters of kingdoms, which impose elijia sovereigns the obligation to defend the lives, property and rights of their subjects.
The states involved in the slave trade strove to keep it within strict limits. Inwhen the French requested permission to establish a trading post on his territory, King Tezifon of Allada made the following clear-sighted eli,ia In Angola, Mozambique and certain parts of Guinea, however, Europeans got directly involved in the African warfare and trade networks with the help of local black accomplices or half-castes who were the offspring of white adventurers.
These adventurers had a reputation that was unenviable even in an age of extreme cruelty. How profitable was bokoll They give us a very clear picture of what was traded in exchange for millions of African lives. Rifles, gunpowder, brandy, cloth, glassware, and ironmongery. A surprisingly unequal exchange? But the same sort of thing is still going on today. The countries of the North stop at nothing to convince African heads of state to import white elephants in exchange for mediocre personal profit.
Clearly, the ideological weapons wlikia to justify the slave trade reflected neither the reality nor the dynamics of African society. Africans, like all other peoples, had no particular liking for slavery.
Slavery was generated and maintained by a specific system. While the revolts of black slaves during the Atlantic crossing and in Elikka are well documented, there is much less awareness of the scale and diversity of resistance to slavery within Africa. Both to the Atlantic slave trade as such and to the slavery in Africa which it induced or aggravated.
It throws unexpected rlikia on the rejection of boiolo slave trade in the African coastal societies. It is packed full of details of damage to vessels insured by the famous London company from its foundation in The perpetrators of these revolts were the slaves themselves, assisted by the coastal population.
It is elikoa if there were two separate interests at work: As for slavery within African society itself, everything appears to indicate that it grew in parallel with the Atlantic slave trade and was reinforced by it.
It similarly gave rise to many forms of resistance: In the Senegal valley, for example, the attempts by certain monarchs to enslave and sell their own subjects gave rise, at the end of the 17th century, to the Marabout war and the Toubenan movement from the word tuub, meaning to convert to Islam. He appointed them, on the contrary, to preserve their subjects and protect them from their enemies.
Peoples were not made for kings, but kings for peoples. Further south, in what is now Angola, the Kongo peoples invoked Christianity in the same way, both against the missionaries, who were compromised in the slave trade, and against the local powers.
Similar appeals to religion are still a feature of demands for freedom and equality in various parts of Africa.
Clearly, the slave trade was far from marginal. It is central to modern African history, and resistance to it engendered attitudes and practices that have persisted to the present day.
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The ideas of abolitionist propaganda, which certain ways of commemorating the abolition of slavery tend to reinforce, should not be accepted uncritically. The desire for freedom, and freedom itself, did not come to the Africans from outside, whether from Enlightenment philosophers, abolitionist agitators or republican humanists.
Ekikia came from internal developments within the Bokoli societies themselves. Moreover, from the end of the 18th century, eliiia in countries bordering on the Gulf of Guinea, who had mostly grown rich on the slave trade, began to distance themselves from slavery and send their children to Britain to train in the sciences and other professions useful for the development of commerce.
But the Africa of the 19th century was very different from the continent which Europeans had encountered four hundred years earlier. The racism rooted in the slave-trade era blossomed anew in these propitious circumstances.
On the basis of such value judgements, the West was postulated as a model.
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However, once the colonial powers had carved up the continent between them, they took great care not to abolish the slavery structures they had found in place. Worse still, in order to drive the economic machine, they created a new type of slavery in the form of forced labour. Histoire et Civilisations, Vol.
I, Haiter-Aupelf, Paris,p. The impact of the export slave trade on African societies, Hutchinson, London, ; P. Curtin, The Atlantic Slave Trade. A hundred and fifty years after France abolished slavery The impact of the slave trade on Africa On 27 April Victor Schoelcher, the French under-secretary of state for the colonies, signed a decree abolishing slavery. Trade or go under We need to take a fresh look at the origins of the Atlantic slave trade.
Racism History Human rights Africa.