Enhanced Ground Proximity WarningSystem (EGPWS) usually integrated as a mode of operation of the Electronic Flight Instrument System. Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide. This includes descriptions of the various system modes;. Built-In-Test (BIT) and. Automatic height calls, warnings of excessive bank angle – Mode 6 Therefore an Enhanced GPWS (EGPWS) includes a Terrain Awareness.
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These efpws can give audio and visual warnings to the pilots to indicate when they are approaching a situation that will lead to them flying mdes the ground water or other obstacles on the surface. They are integrated with glass cockpits and other systems on more advanced aircraft with the possibility to provide warning information with Synthetic vision systems SVS. However, like other systems uses to prevent accidents they still have their own limitations.
The TAWS was a response to the growing concern about aircraft flying into terrain. So on December 24ththe FAA issued a rule that large aircraft must be fitted with a device to evpws an aural and visual warning when aircraft was below ft 1. These initial devices were simply a radar altimeter that could tell what height the aircraft was above the ground.
These early systems however, suffered from a few limitations which meant that the systems quickly evolved. The most noticeable limitation was the fact the radar altimeter could not look ahead and there for could not pick up steep terrain 2. The GPWS uses a number of instruments to tries predict the future and indicate whether the pilot is a situation that egpwd cause an epgws.
There are several situations that the GPWS will issue an alarm, each situation has been given a mode number and may given a different alarm depending on what is happening. Excessive descent rate Mode 2: Excessive terrain closure rate Mode 3: Altitude loss after takeoff or go-around Mode 4: Unsafe terrain clearance when not in Landing Configuration Mode 5: Excessive deviation from ILS glide slope Mode 6: Descent below the selected minimum radio altitude Mode 7: The Modess gathers information from the instruments and uses computer calculations to determine what the aircraft is doing and its relation with the ground.
Some modes depending on the severity of the situation will give an aural alert or an aural warning. Appropriate TAWS response procedures to each mode are determined after careful study of aircraft type performance capability. They are clearly defined by so that in case of a Warning, they can be followed without hesitation as soon as a triggered. Operators normally define different response procedures based upon memory drills for a Warning sometimes called a Hard Warning and an immediate review in the case of an Alert sometimes called a Soft Warning 2.
There are still however, limitations to theses systems that require the pilots to use their experience and situation awareness to determine if the warning is real.
For example, if the instruments are giving false alerts or if the pilot is eggpws in that situation, the pilot must then ignore the warnings that are given to them. Also with the introduction of glass cockpit into aviation is can create a situation where the pilots either learn to rely on this system to prevent CFIT or they learn incorrect responses to the alert.
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Either way this can lead to pilots who find that they cause accidents that the TAWS is trying to prevent. There are however, possibilities to also prevent disasters happening by intentional flight into terrain. An example would be terrorism. It modea possible that the systems could be built to be integrated with other advanced systems to only allow aircraft to fly certain routes thus preventing anyone from flying new over populated areas 3.
Ground proximity warning system
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